Posts tagged conflict
George Marshall

Most know that this week marks the anniversary of the June 6 US-led invasion of Europe known as "D-Day," which turned the tide against Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, bringing about the end of WWII. Many don’t know, however, that the first week of June is also remembered as the time when the post-war peace in Europe was established. This is all thanks to George Marshall.

Though a soldier in both the 1st and 2nd World Wars, George Marshall is best known to history as a man of peace. In fact, he's the only US soldier to have ever won the Nobel Peace Prize. Here's that story...

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Azucena Villaflor

This is not the first time in history that a government with terribly misguided intentions has tried to enforce its policies by breaking up families. And, sadly, it isn't the first time this has happened in the United States: for over 100 years beginning in the 1860s, Native American children were taken from their families and adopted into white families or brought up in boarding schools with the express purpose of robbing them of the language and culture of their birthright. It's also not the first time that parents have stood up to such abuse against humanity and fought back, even at the risk of torture or death.

Meet Azucena Villaflor. Hers is a short story. But an important one.

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Ellen Johnson Sirleaf

It's rare to identify a politician as a hero -- winning and keeping power always involves trade-offs, compromises, and confrontations that force the honest writer to balance shades of gray.

Which brings us to Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf. Though she suffered more hardships that most people experience in a lifetime, she didn't just survive, she thrived, elevating a nation along with her. 

Sirleaf-Johnson overcame an abusive husband, exile from her homeland, imprisonment, two violent civil wars, and the ingrained sexism that has limited women's achievements for much of humankind to become Africa's first female Head of State as president of her native country, Liberia, a nation founded in the early 1800s by freed American slaves.

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Carmen Yulín Cruz

It should have been the sitting president’s Hurricane Katrina. Like Bush before him, Trump should have been held accountable for his failure to act in the face of human tragedy. Fortunately, for the residents of Puerto Rico, they had a strong voice in Carmen Yulín Cruz.

On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico. In roughly 30 hours, the category 5 hurricane tore the island apart. Some say it was the worst natural disaster in the history of the Caribbean. Others characterize it as a “catastrophic event,” more devastating by definition than a “disaster” as it lay to waste the infrastructure that once served its 3.4 million inhabitants.

Without warning, Maria left Puerto Ricans without power and water. Hospitals swelled with the wounded and dying. But weeks later, health practitioners were still forced to operate by the light of mobile phones. Puerto Rico was in crisis. It needed help. Fast. Yet, its nearest, richest, and most powerful neighbor, the United States of America failed to come to the rescue.

The indifference may not have been so shocking were it not for the fact that Puerto Rico is an official commonwealth of the US. It has been since the end of the Spanish-American War of 1898.  

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Deitrich Bonhoeffer

The study of History most often focuses on the rise and fall of demagogues and dictators. But you can be sure that behind each one there are stories – some little known, others perhaps never told – of the brave individuals who made it their life's work to stop them. Even at their own peril.

This is one such story.

In the early 1930s in Germany, there arose to national prominence a man with very peculiar views. His name was Adolf Hitler and he blamed Germany’s post-WWI humiliation and economic failure on the Jews and the communists.

The country's economic distress was more realistically due to the harsh punishment Germany received for being on the losing side of “the war to end all wars” – a nickname for WWI. But paybacks imposed by the victors were so excessive they bankrupted the country and plunged its people into abject, crushing poverty. This created a witch’s brew of bitterness and pain: the perfect environment for a demagogue – a leader who seeks support through prejudice rather than rational argument – to exploit.

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Benito Juarez

From a childhood of backbreaking work in the cornfields to Cinco de Mayo, this indigenous peasant grew up to become a symbol of freedom and national pride for the Mexican people.

Benito Juárez was born to the Zapotec Indian tribe in Oaxaca, Mexico, in 1806. His parents were poor peasants who’d died by the time he was three. At 12, Benito worked in the cornfields to feed himself. But when he wasn't working, he walked, every day, to the city of Oaxaca to attend school. He learned to read, write, and speak in Spanish. In his 20s, the brilliant young mind turned its attention to the study of law.

Like elsewhere in the world, Mexico was then undergoing tremendous change. For centuries, politics had been dominated by European-descended landowners and the Catholic Church. This "conservative" faction owned nearly all the country's land and wealth. They now feared the grassroots power of the peasant classes. To maintain the status quo, they supported a repressive dictatorship, ruled by General Antonio López de Santa Anna, who had no qualms about using violence to oppress the peasant and indigenous peoples.

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Antonio Gramsci

Written in obscurity from a prison cell, this hero's ideas about power and the roots of social inequality would change the world. 

In 1925 the Prime Minister of Italy, who ruled constitutionally from 1922, dropped all pretense of democracy and established a dictatorship. His name was Benito Mussolini. And if he didn't like the way you thought or what you believed, he had his goons eliminate you or throw you in prison on the remote island of Ustica. 

This is where our story of Antonio Gramsci begins. Mussolini had him arrested in 1926, not for his actions but his words and ideas. Gramsci's vocal point of view was simply too dangerous to allow him to walk free. He was a threat to Mussolini's power.

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Rani Durgavati

She rose, unexpectedly, to be queen of a doomed people. But in her veins flowed the blood of heroes. And she knew it.

Rani Durgavati was born in 1524 in what is now central India. Her father, Keerat Raj, was then a king of the ancient and powerful Chandel Dynasty, which 500 years earlier had brought advanced art and architecture to its region. 

To cement his position of power, Keerat Raj arranged for Rani to marry the eldest son of the King of a nearby kingdom called Gond. Upon the marriage of Rani to Dalpat Shah in 1542, the Chandel and Gond were united into the single kingdom of Gondwana. As was the custom in ancient dynasties, theirs was as much political alliance as marriage.

Rani soon gave birth to a son named Vir. The dynastic lineage Raj imaged was thus secured. However, Dalpat Shah sickened and died in 1550. Indian queens were rarely called on to rule, but because Vir was just a child, Rani had no choice but to take up the reigns of power. She was just 26. She soon made a name for herself as a fair and just leader of her people.

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Heroes of the First U.S. School Shooting

Today, we shine a light on ordinary people doing extraordinary things in the face of terror brought on by gun violence, while simultaneously tipping our hat to the youth now on the front lines of the #NeverAgain movement.

Enough is indeed enough. We applaud you. We stand by you. And to put the struggle for sensible gun control measures in greater context, we offer you the story of the first school shooting in US history...

...52 years ago.

Far too long for this deathly epidemic not to have been eradicated.

At first, no one realized what was happening...

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Qiu Jin

A feminist poet and revolutionary, Qui Jin refused to compromise her dreams for liberation, becoming a symbol of – and hero to – modern China.

Qui Jin was born into a China on the brink of collapse. In 1875, the country had suffered two back-to-back conflicts on its own soil. Collectively referred to as the Opium Wars, they had rapidly undermined the ruling Qing Dynasty, which had been in power since 1644. Opium is a highly addictive substance -- one try and you're hooked -- which made dealers rich. But the traders were mostly British and French, and their importation of opium from India into China was largely illegal.

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Harriet Tubman

She risked her life to escape from slavery. Once free, she risked her life again... and again... to help others gain their freedom as well.

No one knows exactly when Araminta “Minty” Ross was born. Few bothered to record the origins of the enslaved. We know only that her mother was named Rit, a cook on the Brodess family plantation in Maryland. Rit had nine children. Three of her daughters were sold into the Deep South by her master and never heard from again. When her master attempted to sell her youngest son Moses, Rit hid him in her cabin and promised to split the head of the first man who entered to take him. That time, the sale was called off.

As a child, Harriet did chores for local white families. She was beaten frequently for working too slowly. On one occasion, a white man she offended struck the five-foot slip of a girl in the head with a two-pound weight, fracturing her skull. After that, she suffered seizures, likely from epilepsy, the remainder of her life.

In her 20s, Minty could no longer bear life. She proclaimed that she feared life in captivity more than death. She decided to run away to the North, where slavery had been abolished. Unable to openly tell her mother goodbye, she bid adieu with a song: "I'll meet you in the morning … I'm bound for the promised land." That's also when she changed her first name to Harriet, her mother's full name, and adopted the last name Tubman.

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Born from the ruins of a 5,000-year-old dynasty, this young woman outsmarted the most powerful men of her age to become the most famous queen in history!

Egypt was in chaos. The corrupt Pharaoh, Ptolemy XII, known for his love of wine and music, was hated by his people. They protested increasingly high taxation, which Ptolemy XII exacted to pay tribute -- a sign of respect, submission, and/or allegiance -- to then Roman Emperor Pompey. The cost of living was high enough! So they overthrew Ptolemy in 58 B.C.E., forcing him into exile. He fled to Rome, taking his teenage daughter, Cleopatra, with him.

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Abraham Lincoln

History remembers him as Honest Abe. But did you know that few world leaders navigated the most treacherous political rapids as skillfully as Abraham Lincoln?

Just weeks after his inauguration as the 16th president of the United States, Lincoln confronted a crisis that would result in war but also change the course of history. The Great Civil War was a test of values. When it ended, over 600,000 people were dead, but so was his country's reliance on the institutional enslavement of blacks for economic benefit.

We therefore kick off a month of posts focused on Black History by honoring the man many believe to be the greatest US president who ever lived. 

It was April 1861. Abe had been in the White House for only 30 days and seven US southern states had seceded from the Union to form the Confederacy, a renegade government determined to shed blood to preserve the right to enslave and own African-Americans. Seven other states were poised to follow. Meanwhile, at Fort Sumter in South Carolina, 85 Union soldiers were under siege by 5,000 Confederate conscripts ready to pick a fight.

It was heretofore the greatest calamity in the history of the United States. But before we finish that story, let's look back...

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From deep inside the slave trade, she resisted. And through her resistance, Nzinga became a symbol of freedom.

It was the 1570s, the beginning of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Portuguese soldiers and missionaries raided central Africa in search of slaves to send to the sugar plantations and gold mines of the New World. With firearms, they slaughtered Africans who resisted, cutting off their noses to present to the King of Portugal as tribute. They bribed African leaders with gold and guns to help them enslave their own people to feed an insatiable market.

The Kingdom of Ndongo, under the brave leadership of Ngola (king) Kasenda, refused to hand over its people to the Portuguese. As revenge, the Portuguese plundered Ndonga and kidnapped 50,000 villagers, killing many more. The invaders sacked the Ndongo capitol city, Kabasa, where King Kasenda lived, in 1584. He fled with his family just as slave traders prowled the streets of Kabasa in search of them. Among the royal refugees was an infant girl named Nzinga.

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